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Nimodipine (CAS: 66085-59-4) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker originally developed for the treatment of high blood pressure.

MP 125°C
storage temp.
Store at RT
Solubility methanol: 62.5 mg/mL
Calcium channel blockers Nimodipine, molecular formula C21H26N2O7, was first developed by Germany Bayer pharmaceutical industry. It is the latest generation of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is calcium blockers. It can inhibit the influx of calcium into vascular smooth muscle cells. It has bronchodilation effects isolated or intracorporal cerebral artery or ischemia cerebral artery. It can significantly improve cerebral blood flow, and effectively prevent and treat cerebral ischemic damage, migraines, sudden deafness that caused by cerebral vascular spasm which is induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nimodipine can also be used for mild and moderate hypertension. It can effectively regulate the body’s calcium in order to maintain the normal physiological function. It has particularly prominent effects on cerebral vascular, and it can combine with specific receptors of central nervous system. Cerebral vessels can be selectively expanded at a suitable dose, and it can hardly affect peripheral vascular. It also has a good effect on high blood pressure when its dose is increased.
Pharmacological action Nimodipine is calcium channel blockers. It can relieve vasospasm by effectively preventing Ca2+ into the cell and inhibiting contraction of smooth muscle. It is highly lipophilic, and easily permeates the blood-brain barrier. It has a strong effect on cerebral artery. In addition, it also has positive effect on protecting memory and recovering intelligence. Nimodipine has selective effects on cerebrovascular smooth muscle. It can expand cerebral blood vessels, increase cerebral blood flow and significantly reduce ischemic brain damage caused by vasospasm.
Pharmacokinetics 1. When taken orally, nimodipine can be rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and the concentration will reach a peak within about 1 hour. T1/2 is 1 to 2 hours, and the elimination time is 8 to 9 hours. After taken orally four times a day, the blood has no obvious accumulation of nimodipine for seven days. When its concentration is between 10ng/L and 10μg/mL, more than 95% of drugs combine with plasma protein. Most of nimodipine will be excreted in the form of metabolites after oral, and about 1% of the ingredients exit the body unchanged in the urine. Due to the rapid metabolism of nimodipine in a first phase, the bioavailability after taken orally is 13%. The biological activity of nimodipine in patients with chronic liver damage increases. And the maximum concentration can be up to twice as high as normal people.
2. Intravenous injection: The dosage for intravenous injection is 0.03mg/kg. The half-life (t1/2) is (1.1±0.2) h. According to the study, 15 patients with subarachnoid space bleeding (grade 1-3) have been injected with this product for 48mg a day, lasting 14 days. The average plasma concentration is 36~ 72μg/L. The protein binding rate is 96% to 99%. The steady state distribution of apparent volume is 1.6~3.1L/kg. The concentration of plasma drug decline quickly, and the metabolites almost has no activity. It is mainly eliminated through bile. 80% can be excreted by the intestine with faeces and 20% by the kidneys with the urine.
Indications Nimodipine is a calcium antagonist of selective expansion of cerebral blood vessels. It can increase cerebral blood flow, improve cerebral blood circulation, prevent ischemic cerebral vasospasm, reduce calcium influx, protect ischemic brain cell function, prevent the occurrence and development of brain vascular disease and delay and prevent the occurrence of stroke. Nimodipine is mainly used for cerebral insufficiency, cerebral vasospasm, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke and migraine. It has a certain effect on sudden deafness.
Attentions 1.Nimodipine should be used for patients with cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension with caution. Nimodipine metabolites has toxicity. So patients with liver dysfunction should be used with caution. Nimodipine can cause a lowering of blood pressure. For patients with hypertensive subarachnoid hemorrhage or stroke patients, the dosage of antihypertensive drugs should be paid attention to be reduced or temporarily stopped, or the dosage of nimodipine should be reduced. That can produce intestinal pseudo-obstruction, manifested as abdominal distension, decreased bowel sounds. When the above symptoms appears, the dosage should be reduced and observation should be hold.
2.Nimodipine can be secreted by milk. Breast-feeding women should not use. Animal experiments suggest that this product has teratogenicity.
Untoward reaction There are about 11.2% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage that have adverse reactions. The most common symptoms are blood pressure dropping (the extent of decline is related to drug dose), hepatitis, skin irritation, gastrointestinal bleeding, thrombocytopenia, occasionally transient dizziness, headache, facial flushing, vomit, gastrointestinal discomfort and the like. In addition, after taken nimodipine orally, individual patients may appear alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood sugar elevating and platelet count increasing for individual human.
Chemical property Light yellow crystalline powder, odorless and tasteless. Soluble in ethanol or acetone, insoluble in water. Melting point 124~128℃. Acute toxicity LD50 in mice and rats (mg/kg): 3562, 6599. Oral: 33. Intravenous injection: 16.
(+)-Configuration: [α] D20+7.9° (C=0.439, dioxane).
(-)-Configuration: [α] D20-7.93° (C=0.374, dioxane).
Biological Activity L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker.
Applications 1. Calcium channel blockers. Nimodipine has anti-ischemic and anti-vasoconstriction effect. It is the drug to improve cerebral vasodilator and brain function. It can be used for treating ischemic cerebrovascular disease, mild to moderate hypertension, migraine, cerebral vasospasm, sudden deafness and the like.
2. Calcium channel blockers. Nimodipine is mainly used for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and migraine.
3. A new calcium antagonist. Nimodipine is used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, such as cerebral vasospasm, interim and early ischemic cerebrovascular migraine, and sudden deafness.
Usage and dosage The usage and dosage of this product is very different for different symptom and severity.
1. Nimodipine can be taken orally when symptoms are mild:
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease: 20~40mg, 3 times/d, continuous use for a month.
Migraine: 40mg, 3 times/d; 12 weeks for a course of treatment.
Hypertension: 40~80mg, 3 times/d.
Sudden deafness: 10~20mg, 3 times/d; 5 days as a course of treatment, usually for 3 to 4 courses.
Cerebral vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage: 10~20mg, 3~4 times/d; 3 to 4 weeks for a course of treatment.
2. Severe patients with the above-mentioned diseases may be considered to use ntravenous injection: the beginning of 0.5mg/h, gradually increase after 2h to 1 ~ 2mg/h; 5~10d later change to oral.
Usage A dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used as a vasodilator (cerebral).

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